The market of making confectionaries (ψιλικα ), like many other industries, has transformed significantly over the last few years. Although the basic solutions have undertaken small changes, the manufacturing technologies have actually transformed substantially (this uses specifically to the approaches of developing tiny products and also floor tiles, as well as their packaging).
At the beginning of this chapter, it appears appropriate to discuss only these adjustments, yet a lot more on those later applied to particular recipes.
Various groups of confectionery products call for certain molding techniques to make sure that they can be covered and packaged in one of the most suitable method for sale. Possibly the most successful technology was the pastry bar. These bars permit you to use cost-efficient techniques of manufacturing, packaging as well as display screen at the point of sale.
At the same time, there were noticeable enhancements in the packaging – both in the materials utilized and in the securing methods. A lot of the bars in order to make certain long service life, to shield against insect damage and also contamination call for protective packaging. We think about these factors in different phases.
We have currently considered the manufacturing of delicious chocolate, and also consequently it is clear that chocolate and also complex glazes have a primarily fatty basis, their moisture web content is really low (normally less than 1%), and the active ingredients are not in aqueous option.
In many confectionery procedures, the dissolving ability of sugar (sucrose) is taken into consideration individually or in mix with various other sugars, such as glucose syrup (corn syrup) and also invert sugar. There are 2 major groups of sugar confectionery items: a) items in which sugar is entirely dissolved, and also b) products in which sugar is partly liquified, and partly existing in the form of little strong crystals suspended in solution. These items may be customized with other components (for example, milk and fats). The very first team includes hard candy, hard as well as soft milk desserts, toffee and also most jelly sweets. The 2nd group includes items such as fudge, fudge (fudge), marshmallows and nougat with a pronounced fine-crystalline framework.
Introduction confectionery manufacturing modern technologies
Below we will see that all the variety of structures obtained is a result of using various technological processes and formulas, all of which need special methods for the formation of individual items. Right here we look at general innovation issues, and see their particular usages in various other areas of this publication.
Smearing and reducing
The equipment is geared up with cooled down rolls, which allow you to feed the product straight from the device, where it is prepared, to home plate developing tools. After molding and lamination, the plates are fed to an air conditioning device, and after that to traditional reducing devices and spreaders. Then the products are polished.
Фирма SOLLICH GmbH, г. Бад-Зальцуфлен, Германия.
This is probably the earliest technique of producing bars (floor tiles) as well as specific products from plastic items such as fudge, nougat and also various pastes. A confectionery item in a suitable plastic state, figured out by its wetness, fat content or temperature, is first fed to the rolls to acquire a plate of the needed thickness. This plate is after that fed to cutting gadgets to produce vast strips, which are after that cut into slim ceramic tiles or bars. Currently, the warm product is fed to cooled down rolls, allowing to get multilayer plates. The plates are continuously cut into strips that go through the (” spreading equipment)” spreader “, after which the strips are cut into bars or tiny items. An instance of such a procedure is the Sollich Conjug system (Fig. 19.1).
Casting or otsadka
This technique is used for the production of candies, fondant and jelly sweets, some kinds of milk candies and also fudge, marshmallows and various other items that can be gotten in fluid kind.
Some products in liquid form might be built at a temperature of concerning 150 ° C in a metal mold whose surface area is covered with a “lubricating substance”.
Pomadnye, želejnye sweet, maršmellou.
These items are usually cast into cells developed in starch (see listed below the section “Fondant coverings”). A more recent advancement is the automated rainfall as well as extraction of fondant shells and also some other confectionery items making use of steel molds (Cadbury-Baker Perkins), in addition to the precipitation of sugar and also toffee into silicone mold and mildews (Baker Perkins). Silicone is a non-tacky material that has distinct residential or commercial properties and is resistant to reasonably heats, common for the production of caramel confectionery.
This method applies nearly solely to candy caramel as well as some kinds of toffee. The normal flavored candies, sweets with a filler and “toffee” are made.
The manufacturing concept is to cool the brewed syrup under regulated conditions until it reaches a ductile state. In this state, the product is transformed into a type of rope, fed to the stamps, on which the ended up items (typically of a particular shape or with a pattern) are obtained from it. The resulting items are right away sent to the cooling closet as well as covering machine.
To acquire some kinds of caramel and chewy sweets, a variation of this approach is made use of, in which the harness acquired in a similar means is fed to a cutting-wrapping machine, where with the help of high-speed circular blades, little items are cut from it that come to the wrapping maker.
Extrusion and also molding bars.
The principle of extrusion, carried out in the production of lots of non-food items, has been effectively applied in the confectionery sector. The application of this procedure to the manufacturing of different products– from soft products such as marshmallows and fondant sweets to extremely plastic nougat as well as milk delicious chocolates– is described in  In this instance, the material based on extrusion is fed to the electrical outlet nozzles with the help of a number of rolls or augers. The nozzle opening profile determines the form of the end product, and many extruders are equipped with a variety of nozzles that develop harnesses that can be cut into bars or tiny pieces. In fig. 19.2 programs different rolls for extruders, as well as fig. 19.3 is a Wemer-Lehara extruder cross section with a system for cutting off tiny pieces from the strands. In fig. 19.4 reveals the layout of the Weisert-Loser extruder for the extrusion of chewing periodontal as well as chewing candy.
The design of the NID bar extruder is slightly various. The feeding is carried out by grooved rollers similarly as in various other extruders, however the material to be formed is fed to a second account roller. The profiled surface area of the roll is covered with fluoroplastic to guarantee simple separation of the material and also is utilized to shape benches into the called for shape. The pins help eliminate the harnesses onto the conveyor belt.
It is possible to make multi-layer bars in which two layers are squeezed out at the same time, or bars with a body from another confectionery product. Extrusion functions well with various other constant production and glazing techniques.
When extrusion confectionery should observe certain safety measures.
Temperature. The extrusion temperature level is of basic relevance, particularly when it comes to milk sweet as well as nougat, the uniformity of which is very dependent on temperature. Small variations in temperature can bring about large adjustments in extrusion stress. For soft milk desserts, a temperature level of 35 to 38 ° C is normally used, yet much depends on the type of item, and the precise temperature level.
Tour problems need to be identified empirically. Low temperatures as well as high pressures trigger ko of extruder safety plugs.
Separation of fat … If fat separates throughout extrusion, this is a sign of inadequate emulsification. Improvement is accomplished when an emulsifier (eg lecithin or glyceryl monostearate) is included in the formula.
Damage after extrusion … After extrusion, some items shed their form, as well as the strip, which is almost cylindrical in cross-section, after a short time on the strip may end up being noticeably flatter. This is because of a number of factors:.
too expensive a wetness content;.
It was not emulsified fat as well as might be too soft;.
the healthy protein of any type of dairy products ingredient is not correctly distributed;.
in fudge or pastes, no crystalline structure has actually developed or has been damaged by extreme stirring after crystal development. This defect can be extremely refined, and in constant fudge production, its appearance depends upon the minute the crystallizing lipstick is included prior to extrusion. It is possible to establish the ideal problems for a details equipment only experimentally. Companies concentrating on the manufacturing of extrusion tools have executed a big quantity of research in the layout of devices for the extrusion of confectionery products of different uniformities. For some items – such as gummies as well as eating gum – the roll extruder is paving the way to a multi-cavity screw (worm) extruder. These innovations are explained in other areas of guide.
The concept of panning is currently described in Chapter 5. There are 2 sorts of sugar rolling – tough and also loosened. With hard knurling, successive layers of powdered sugar and syrup are developed on the preferred body (as an example, nuts) as well as dried out with warm air passing away in between the applied layers. Loose knurling is carried out in a similar method, yet utilizing cool innovation. Soft shells are made use of (for instance, pasta, jelly, soft milk loading), and also the coating is constructed from sugar (or glucose) syrup as well as powdered sugar. After reaching the desired size and weight of the finish, the sweets are partly dried out as well as covered with polish. The process is totally mechanized, including loading and unloading the storage tanks, automatic splashing of syrups (or chocolate), and control of drying out or cooling down air to the containers.
Confectionery lipstick made from sugar, glucose or corn syrup and invert sugar is usually represented in English by the word “creme” (lotion), but some traditional products make use of the choice “cream”, and also in different nations it is called in different ways.
The fondant is prepared by liquifying sugar and glucose syrup (or invert sugar) in water as well as concentrating by steaming to an option having concerning 88% DM. At ambient temperature, this solution is supersaturated with sugar and also unsteady, and also if it is promptly stirred and cooled down, then the excess sugar falls out of the option in the form of small crystals. Therefore, the fondant mass has a strong stage of sugar crystals suspended in a liquid stage containing a saturated option of “sugars”.
Without mixing and cooling down huge crystals are developed. Whipping by itself provides unsuitable outcomes, since a big amount of latent heat of crystallization is launched. If the whipped syrup is left warm, formation reduces as well as succeeding slow air conditioning results in the development of huge crystals. Fondant of good quality ought to be soft in uniformity.
Initially, lipstick was prepared making use of only sugar, which was liquified in water as well as focused by boiling to about the level of 88-90% ST. Given that the solubility of sugar at regular temperature levels is just 67%, the syrup with a focus of 90% is very unsteady and also takes shape upon rapid cooling, “offering” huge crystals.
To overcome this drawback, an additive was used that triggered the inversion of a part of the sugar and boosted the general solubility – this made it feasible to whip the syrup into a fondant mass. Citric or tartaric acids or, extra ideally, tartar (tartaric acid) are made use of therefore additives. The formation of invert sugar from sugar is gone over in an additional phase, however right here we simply note that such ingredients decompose part of the sugar (sucrose), which is chemically a disaccharide, into two monosaccharides, dextrose (glucose) as well as fructose. Fructose is much more soluble (about 80% at 20 ° C) than sucrose, as well as its presence with dextrose enables the focused syrup to be whipped right into a lipstick.
This approach of application of the additive is really undependable, since the quantity of invert sugar developed differs substantially relying on the pureness of the sugar, the boiling time and also the hardness of the water utilized. Ideal outcomes are obtained by adding to the sugar syrup a particular amount of invert sugar, ready independently.
Lipstick, made from sugar and invert sugar, has a granular framework and is extremely pleasant in taste (it is rarely used in contemporary confectionery production). Sugar (corn) syrup has changed invert sugar in lipstick formulas; it is less wonderful, as well as the presence of complex carbs manages the formation of crystals and gives an extra viscous lipstick, which does not have a loose (crumbly) texture.